Sweden 67.8°N / 20.4°E / 451 m
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Trans-ionospheric radio signals of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) like GPS, GLONASS, and GALILEO may suffer from rapid and intensive fluctuations of their amplitude and phase caused by small-scale irregularities of the ionospheric plasma. This phenomenon, which is called radio scintillation, can strongly disturb or disrupt the signal transmission. For technical applications it is useful to derive and to provide the well accepted S4 and σΦ indices describing the amplitude/ intensity and the phase fluctuation of a received signal, respectively. For that purpose the DLR operates several GNSS high-rate receivers in Europe providing the necessary receiver-satellite-link specific amplitude and phase information, cf. dx.doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2014020.
Location and coordinates of Stanford GNSS high-rate receiver operated within DLR’s Experimentation and Verification Network (EVnet)
1 > "GPS Week,"
2 > "GPS TOW - End of epoch,"
3 > "GPS PRN"
4 > S4 based on L1/CA
5 > σΦ in radian
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